Austria with its specific ‘dual’ structure, including both, a strong fulltime school sector and a strong apprenticeship system, lies in-between the established classifications of VET. This structure is not a result of ‘systemic’ political decision-making; rather the different institutions have evolved more or less parallel. It is a remarkable phenomenon that the formal structure has remained quite stable through history, throughout very different regime periods (the Habsburg Empire, 1st Republic, two Fascisms, 2nd Republic). The challenges are first to identify the persistent structural traits, and second to explain the historical processes. Methodologically, the different versions of institutionalist approaches are used for the reanalysis of artefacts from historical studies; the main task is a consistent interpretation of the material, providing new insights about the long term patterns of education reform.
Austria has developed into an immigration country and can be considered as one of the long-standing European immigration countries. Nonetheless, very little is known about the integration of immigrants in the Austrian labor market. The proposed study aims to fill this knowledge gap by providing comprehensive and reliable evidence about the labor market situation of different groups of migrants over time, by analyzing labor market flows and comparing the labor market integration of different waves and groups of immigrants against the contextual backdrop of overall socioeconomic and employment conditions (labor demand), and the evolvement of individual background characteristics of the workforce as a whole.